2 / TROUT AND CHAR 2
Trout and char are fish that have elongated bodies and that swim in clear, cool and well-oxygenated waters of Ontario and Quebec. They can cross-breed at times. This hybridization is common in lakes where many species are present. Trout and char have an adipose fin like other salmonidae (fin between the dorsal fin and tail).
The cross between lake trout and brook trout for example produces a hybrid called “splake” or “wendigo”. The lower fins on the brook trout have a white border which can also be found on the splake. The colors of this trout/char can range from pale to vivid during the breeding season. The tail is almost square (squaretails in English). This species is fertile unlike most hybrids. These fish prefer warmer waters than where lake trout are found.
Both trout and char are present in Quebec and Ontario and both have a significant value in terms of sports fishing, commercial and recreational fishing. They can be found in the Ontario great lakes. Their flesh is excellent and their colour varies from white/pink to orange/red depending on their diet and depending on the different species. The flesh of lake trout is generally paler than that of the other species.
Female trout and char are generally larger than their male counterparts (sexual dimorphism) but the colors of the male fish are generally more pronounced than those of female fish.
2.1 / RAINBOW TROUT
Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmonidea Family
Common Names: Stealhead (anadromous rainbow trout), rainbow trout
Canadian Record: 40.68 lbs.
Ontario Record: 40.68 lbs.
Quebec Record: 13 lbs.
Preferred Temperature: (min and max): 11 to 26 degrees C/52 to 79 degrees F
Optimal Temperature: 16 degrees C/61 degree F
Habitat: Rainbow trout frequent many diverse habitats. Indeed, this species has been introduced in many different habitats around the world. In rivers, they will be found in areas that have moderate current and a rocky, gravelly bottom. They can also be found in rivers that have falls, rapids and deep pools of water. In lakes, rainbow trout can be found at different depths (Great Lakes). Adults that live in lakes however must have access to streams or rivers in order to spawn and survive.
Reproduction: Breeding takes place during spring time from mid-April to late June, when the water temperature is around 10-15 degrees C (50-60 degree F). Sexual maturity is reached at adulthood, between ages 3 to 5 years. They can breed during the day as well as at night. Adults living in lakes will return to the rivers to spawn. The preferred or ideal spawning beds for rainbow trout are in rapids upstream from a deep pool of water and these would have a gravel bed. The female builds its nest by laying on its side and sweeping the bottom of the river with its tail. She will lay her eggs in it.
After spawning and fertilization, the female will cover the eggs to protect them from predators. Hatching will occur a few weeks later (4 to 7 weeks) and the fry will begin to feed on zooplankton at around 2 weeks old. Adult rainbow trout return to their lake or river of origin at the end of the breeding season. Anadromous trout (Steelhead) may at times travel to the rivers a few months prior to breeding season and can remain there for a few months post-breeding season. The life expectancy of a rainbow trout will vary depending on its habitat, food availability and geographic location and can range between a few years to a decade.
Diet: The rainbow trout usually feeds on insects, mollusks, crustaceans, invertebrates, worms, leeches, fish eggs or small fish, etc…
Fishing Techniques: Casting, trolling, jig, fly.
2.2 / BROWN TROUT
Scientific Name: Salmo Trutta, Salmonidae Family
Common Names: Brown, sea trout (anadromous), Fario or Brown trout (river)
Canadian Record: 34.38 lbs.
Ontario Record: 34.38 lbs.
Quebec Record: 16.5 lbs.
Preferred temperatures (min and max): 13 to 24 degrees C/55 to 75 degrees F
Optimal temperature: 18 degrees C/64 degrees F
Habitat: The brown trout is native to Europe and was introduced in Canada in 1890 in the province of Quebec. It is presently found mainly in Ontario and the Great Lakes. This species prefers clear waters, cold and well oxygenated lakes and rivers. Anadromous brown trout is called sea trout. This species tolerates higher temperatures than other types of trout and char.
Reproduction: The breeding season extends from late fall to early winter, from mid-October to late December, depending on its geographical location and on the water temperature ( 7 to 9 degrees C/44 to 48 degrees F). Spawning areas are generally located in shallow lakes and rivers where the bed is covered with pebbles and gravel. The female will move the gravel or pebbles to a shallow nest in which she will deposit her eggs.
The male will fertilize the eggs with its milt and the female will cover the nest with pebbles. The protected eggs will hatch and emerge from the gravel in the spring after exhausting their vitelline reserve. Crossing the brown trout with brook trout provides a hybrid called “tiger trout”. The longevity of the brown trout is relatively short, generally about 8 years.
Diet: Brown trout feed primarily on insects, crustaceans, mollusks, invertebrates, small fish, salamanders, frogs, worms, fish eggs, etc…
Fishing Techniques: Trolling, casting, jig, fly.
2.3 / BROOK TROUT
Scientific Name: Salvelinus fontinalis, Salmonidae Family
Common Names: Brook trout, speckled trout, red trout, sea trout (anadromous)
Canadian Record: 17.75 lbs.
Ontario Record: 14.5 lbs.
Quebec Record: 11.6 lbs.
Preferred temperatures (min and max): 5 to 20 degrees C/42 to 68 degrees F
Optimal temperature: 14 degrees C/57 degrees F
Habitat: The brook trout frequent cool, clear waters such as well oxygenated streams, lakes and rivers. They usually live in bodies of water where the temperature is below 20 degrees C (68 degrees F). The brook trout is a native species that can be found in many lakes in Ontario and Quebec. The habitat of brook trout during the spawning period is similar to that of brown trout and it is not uncommon to see the two species in the same bodies of water, although they compete directly against each other.
Reproduction: The brook trout will normally spawn during the day sometime between September and November in the most southern areas. However, it may spawn as early as August in northern Canada. This particular brook trout prefers a cooler temperature of about 10 degrees C (50 degrees F) in order to spawn.
Spawning grounds are generally in shallow streams and rivers where adults swim upstream during the breeding period. The bottom is generally a gravel bed.
The female digs a nest in which she will lay her eggs during the day. She covers the eggs with gravel to protect them from predators until they hatch. Eggs that are not buried are subject to being snatched by predators as adults do not protect the nest or fry.
The eggs hatch in late winter, from 50 to 100 days after spawning. The fry remain in the gravel until they are able to swim and feed themselves. Until then, they will feed on their vitelline reserve and will emerge from the gravel nest the following spring.
Diet: The brook trout feed primarily on small fish, larvae, insects, worms, leeches, crustaceans, molluscs, salamanders, small vertebrates, etc…Their diet is relatively varied depending on food availability. The growth of brook trout tends to be generally slower than other trout or char.
Fishing Techniques: Trolling, casting, jig, fly.
2.4 / LAKE TROUT
Scientific Name: Salvelinus namaycush, Family Salmonidae
Common Names: Canadian Char, lake trout, grey trout, touladi
Canadian Record: 72.25 lbs.
Ontario Record: 63.12 lbs.
Quebec Record: 57.5 lbs.
Preferred temperatures (min and max): 3 to 11 degrees C/37 to 52 degrees F
Optimum temperature: 7 degrees C/45 degrees F
Habitat: Lake trout, like all trout and char, prefer lakes and rivers that have cold and clear waters and that are well oxygenated. They can live in shallow waters that have tundra bottoms or in deep pools in lakes and rivers, all depending on their geographical location. Lake trout are native to this area as are brook trout. You will find them in Quebec and in Ontario.
Lake trout are particularly fond of rocky or sandy habitats. Depending on the water temperature and the season, they can be comfortable in any layer of the same body of water. As ice melts, it can be fished near the surface of the water or within three meters of the surface (less than 10 feet). The warmer water temperatures can force them to descend as far as 30 meters (100 feet) during the summer.
Reproduction: Trout breed at night and during the fall season, from September to November depending on its latitude location. Spawning areas are usually shallow, ranging from 30 centimeters to 10 meters deep (1 foot to 30 feet). They prefer rocky, stony and gravelly surfaces to reproduce.
Sexual maturity is reached at around six or seven years in the south but up to twelve or thirteen years in the north. Lake trout lay their eggs between stones and pebbles lining the bottom of the water without making a nest. Eggs will remain here until they hatch and the fry will emerge the following spring. Adults do not protect the eggs or the fry.
Young trout migrate to deeper waters in order to protect themselves from predators. They will spend the first years of their lives feeding on plankton. The Canadian Char or lake trout can live up to 30 or 40 years depending on its geographical location.
Diet: Their diet varies depending on size, the water in which they live in and the food that is available. The fry feed mainly on zooplankton, larvae, adult insects, small crustaceans, leeches and small fish (Cisco Lake, smelt, whitefish, and suckers, etc…). The lake trout is a formidable predator who does not hesitate to climb a few meters in order to capture its prey, while at other times they will sulk at every offering.
Fishing techniques: Trolling, casting, jigging, drop shot, fly.
3 / PERCIDAE 3
General Description: The percidae species is highly coveted in both Ontario and Québec. The walleye is a fish of great commercial, recreational and sports value. The flaky white flesh of this type of fish is extremely tasty and very popular in Canada.
Fish from this family feed throughout the year and can be caught during the summer months or while ice fishing in winter. The walleye (or also called yellow pickerel) is a species that has a herd mentality and these fish are lucifugous. Their eyes are sensitive to light and it is for this reason that they prefer turbid waters (tea-coloured) or deep pools of clear water. Eating habits also vary with the light. This species is generally most active at dawn and at dusk, as well as when it is overcast, cloudy and windy.
The two species (walleye and sauger) often frequent the same habitat at the same time. The hybridization of the two species is also common. The longevity of the sauger is shorter than the walleye. The sauger will rarely live beyond 13 years while the walleye can live up to 26 years.
Finally, walleye grow faster than a sauger. Females of both species are generally larger than the males.
3.1 / WALLEYE
Scientific Name: Sander vitreus, Percidae Family
Common Names: Yellow Pickerel, Walleye
Canadian Record: 22.25 lbs.
Ontario Record: 22.25 lbs.
Quebec Record: 20 lbs.
Preferred temperatures (min and max): 5 to 27 degrees C/41 to 81 degrees F
Optimal temperature: 18 degrees C/65 degrees F
Habitat: Walleye can be found in temperate waters of Quebec and Ontario. They particularly enjoy rocky, stony, sandy and grassy bottoms of lakes and rivers. Their eyes are sensitive to bright sunlight and they will therefore seek shelter to protect themselves. For example, they will not hesitate to swim down into deep pools in lakes and rivers where the light is not as bright. It is not uncommon to find this species at depths of 20 to 30 meters in very clear waters of the St. Lawrence River (60 to 90 feet).
In turbid waters, this walleye will often swim in shallow waters and will be more active during the day. The walleye is generally more active at dawn, dusk or before and during a storm.
Reproduction: Walleye spawn in the spring or early summer depending on the temperature of the water and its geographic location. The walleye usually spawns before the sauger. Males reach sexual maturity before the females.
Adults migrate in large numbers to bodies of water that have rocky, stony, gravelly or sandy bottoms to reproduce. Falls, dams, gravel shoals with current are favorite spots for the reproduction of these species. Spawning areas are normally shallow.
Females lay the eggs at night and the males deposit their milt nearby in order to fertilize them. The eggs will fall into the rock or pebble cracks and are thereby protected from predators. Hatching occurs after 12 to 18 days and the fry quickly disperse 10 to 15 days later. They will remain in the upper layer of open water near the banks so as to avoid predators.
Diet: The walleye feed primarily on invertebrates at a young age and small fish, insects, worms, leeches, etc…until they reach adulthood. They usually hunt in schools although larger specimens may travel alone. Walleye hunt preferably in the morning and evening, but can feed all day in turbid waters.
Fishing Techniques: Trolling, casting, jig, drop shot, fly.
3.2 / SAUGER
Scientific Name: Stizostedion canadense, Percidae Family
Canadian Record: 7.75 lbs.
Ontario Record: 4.40 lbs.
Quebec Record: (Not available)
Preferred temperatures (min and max): 5 to 27 degree C/41 to 81 degree F
Optimal temperature: 16 degrees C/61 degrees F
Habitat: Sauger fish frequent the same kind of habitat as the walleye. Their eyes, however, are even more sensitive to light. We therefore find them at greater water depths.
Reproduction: The sauger spawn during spring usually in May and June when the water reaches temperatures ranging from 8 to 11 degrees C (46-52 F). Males reach sexual maturity before females.
Spawning areas are usually near a shallow bank. The female lays her eggs at night on a bed of gravel to protect the eggs from predators. Parents do not protect the eggs or the fry.
Diet: The Sauger feeds mainly on small fish, aquatic insect larvae, leeches and crayfish. They usually hunt in schools and often find themselves in the company of the walleye.
Fishing Techniques: Trolling, casting, jigging, drop shot.
3.3 / PERCH
Scientific Name: Perca Flavescens, Percidae Family
Common Names: Perch, Yellow Perch
Canadian Record: 2.97 lbs.
Ontario Record: 2.42 lbs.
Quebec Record: 2.5 lbs. (unregistered)
Preferred temperatures (min and max): 14 to 24 degrees C/58 to 75 degrees F
Optimal temperature: 20 degrees C/68 degrees F
Habitat: The yellow perch is a fish that lives in temperate waters of lakes and rivers that have medium to dense vegetation. They particularly like the clear waters with muddy, sandy and gravelly bottoms. Perch is present in Ontario and Quebec. It is very popular on the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes and is now subject to regulation in order to protect the species. This species, like the walleye, is gregarious and lives within a school of fish. The same habitat can therefore accommodate several dozens or hundreds of fish.
Reproduction: Perch usually spawn in the spring from mid-April to late May, depending on its geographical location. Perch ready to spawn move towards shallow areas of lakes and rivers to lay the eggs during the night or early morning. The bottom is generally made up of gravel sand and interspersed with vegetation roots, brush and submerged trees.
A female can lay eggs in the shape of long strings. These can reach up to 2 meters in length. The eggs will stick to the vegetation until the fry hatches 8 to 10 days later. The fry remain inactive for a period of 5 days and feed from their vitelline reserve. Fry often remains together until adulthood.
Diet: Perch feed primarily on zooplankton early in life and change their diet to include larger prey during growth. Small fish, crayfish and other invertebrates, larvae, insects, worms, eggs … will form an integral part of its diet. Perch feed actively throughout the year and can be caught during the summer or when ice fishing in the winter.
Fishing Techniques: Casting, bobber, jigging, drop shot
4 / ESOCIDAE 4
General Description: The pike and muskellunge both belong to the family of esocidae. The hybridization of these two species is possible. The female esocidae is usually larger (sexual dimorphism) and lives longer than the male. Muskellunge grow generally faster than pike. They can also live more than 30 years whereas the pike’s longevity rarely exceeds 25 years.
The Esocidae fish are a solitary and sedentary species that attack their prey by surprise. Their bodies are slender and unsuited for lengthy pursuits. The attacks are usually abrupt, short and direct.
The Esocidae fish are very combative and are overwhelmingly popular amongst anglers and sportsmen. Muskellunge are also subject to strict regulations in Ontario and in Quebec. The flaky white fish of the esocidae is very popular but the recent trend favors returning these back to the water after a catch. Each fish filet has a row of bones in the shape of a Y which can be easily removed when cleaning the fish.
4.1 / MUSKELLUNGE
Scientific Name: Esox masquinongy, Family Esocidae
Common Names: freshwater shark, muskellunge
Canadian Record: 65 lbs.
Ontario Record: 65 lbs.
Quebec Record: 54 lbs.
Preferred temperatures (min and max): 10 to 26 degrees C/50 to 80 degrees F
Optimal temperature: 19 degrees C/66 degrees F
Habitat: You will find muskellunge in shallow waters that are rich in vegetation in the rivers and lakes of Ontario and Quebec (pond weed, water lilies, rushes, etc.). They often inhabit the same areas as the pike do. However, large muskies generally prefer warmer waters than large pike.
Reproduction: The muskellunge spawn during the day, usually after the pike, in late spring and early summer when the water temperature varies between 9.5 and 15 degrees C (50 to 60 degrees F). In the shallow grassy banks of the spawning beds, you can find a female with one or two males.
The female is usually larger than the male. Eggs are deposited randomly on the vegetation and adults do not provide any protection for the fry. Hatching occurs 1 to 2 weeks after spawning.
Diet: Like the pike, muskellunge prefer larger sized prey. They feed mainly on fish but may, on occasion, feed on small vertebrates, amphibians, crayfish, rodents, young waterfowl…
Fishing techniques: Trolling, casting, jigging, fly
4.2 / NORTHERN PIKE
Scientific name: Esox Lucius, Esocidae Family
Common Names: Northern pike, pike, freshwater shark
Canadian Record: 45.9 lbs.
Ontario Record: 42.12 lbs.
Quebec Record: 45.9 lbs.
Preferred temperatures (min and max): 5 to 30 degrees C/41 to 86 degrees F
Optimal temperature: 21 degrees C/70 degrees F
Habitat: Pike prefer shallow lakes, rivers and streams that have dense vegetation and that have temperate water. Their geographic location covers both the province of Quebec and Ontario.
The adult pike stays close to the spawning beds and it is common to find several specimens in the same habitat. The larger pike prefer temperatures between 10 and 12.5 degrees C (50 to 55 degrees F) and it is not uncommon to catch one at a depth of more than 10 meters deep during the summer.
Reproduction: Spawning begins in the spring or when the ice melts in Quebec and Ontario. Water temperature is then between 5 and 7.5 degrees C (40 to 45 F). They will choose banks that are densely populated with vegetation or bays in various lakes and rivers.
The female lays her eggs in the vegetation. Eggs will stick to the vegetation until the birth of the fry, from 12 to 14 days later. The fry will remain idle for 6 – 10 days living on their reserves. Fry stay in the shallow waters of the spawning ground for several weeks and will not be protected by their parents. The fry will feed on zooplankton, insects and eventually small fish when they reach 5 cm in size. Pike can live up to 25 years in northern waters.
Diet: The pike is an opportunistic species that easily captures any kind of prey. Small fish, crayfish, small vertebrates, amphibians, rodents, etc…are part of their diet. Cannibalism is not uncommon in the pike species. Like the Muskellunge, adult pike prefer larger prey.
This fish will stay on the lookout near the edge of weeds, tree trunks or stumps, lilies and will attack its prey by surprise. They prefer to hunt alone and are rather territorial. It is not uncommon to catch several pike in the same spot if the habitat is ideal. Pike grow generally very quickly as they can reach a length of 30 cm in the first year and 50 cm in the second.
Fishing Techniques: Trolling, casting, jigging, fly, drop shot.
5 / CENTRARCHIDAE 5
General Description: Centrarchidae have six species of fish, namely bass, crappie, sunfish and bluegill. The largemouth and smallmouth bass are two species of bass that can be found in freshwaters of Ontario and Quebec. The geographic locations for both species of bass are generally the same in Canada. However, the smallmouth bass is found more abundantly further north than its counterpart largemouth bass that live in warmer waters of Quebec and Ontario. Both species often frequent the same waters, but different habitats.
The body of a bass is stocky and strong. The body of the smallmouth is generally striped while that of the largemouth bass has a dark lateral band. The largemouth bass has a more greenish appearance whereas the smallmouth appears mostly brown. The mouth of the largemouth bass extends backward beyond the eye of the fish. Another distinction between the two is that the two dorsal fins are connected on the smallmouth bass while these are almost completely separated on the largemouth bass. Both species can reach similar sizes at adulthood in Ontario and Quebec.
Bass is a combative fish that will not hesitate to jump out of the water and shake its mouth wide open in order to free itself. The bass is an important species for both commercial, recreational and sports fishing. The flesh of the bass is of high quality, it has a white and flaky appearance and texture. The flesh of the smallmouth bass is generally less oily and preferred by many.
Crappies, sunfish and bluegill are the smallest carnivorous fish of the centrarchidae family. They are especially popular with young anglers in Ontario and Quebec. These species usually measure 15 to 25 inches at adulthood. Crappies, sunfish and bluegills are active throughout the year and can also be caught during the winter (ice fishing). The flesh of the fish is mild and delicious and is particularly appreciated by fishermen in the spring when fishing season has not yet opened for other game fish species.
5.1 / SMALLMOUTH BASS
Scientific Name: Micropterus Dolomieu, Centrarchidae Family
Common Names: Smallmouth, black bass
Canadian Record: 9.84 lbs.
Ontario Record: 9.84 lbs.
Quebec Record: 8.8 lbs.
Preferred temperature (min and max): 10 to 26 degrees C/50 to 79 degrees F
Optimal temperature: 20 degrees C/68 degrees F
Habitat: The smallmouth bass prefers a habitat that is more rocky and sandy than its counterpart the largemouth bass, which prefers waters with dense vegetation. This bass likes pebbled bottoms that are able to hide its favorite food, crayfish. On the St. Lawrence River, the smallmouth bass is particularly fond of shallow waters covered with zebra mussels and that are heavily populated by gobies.
The smallmouth bass is more sensitive to heat than the largemouth and will not hesitate to reach depths of 10 meters or more (30 feet of more) to reach its comfort zone.
Reproduction: The smallmouth bass spawn late in the spring and early summer as do largemouth bass. The spawning beds can be busy from late May to early July depending on the water temperature. Females mature after the males.
The male prepares a nest at a depth ranging from a few dozen centimeters to 6 meters (2 to 20 feet) on a sandy and gravelly bottom. The female lays her eggs in a nest that is vigorously guarded by the male. The male will remain on or near the nest until the fry hatch a few days later (4 to 10 days). The female may also breed with several males by making several nests.
After hatching, the fry measure 5.6 to 5.9 mm in length and feed on plankton at the beginning of their lives. The fry leave the nest a few days later (app. 1 week) but they still remain guarded by the male for several days.
Diet: Smallmouth bass generally feed on smaller prey than do largemouth bass. Its diet consists mainly of crayfish, small fish, small frogs, small rodents, worms, leeches, insects, etc…
This bass will not hesitate to jump out of the water to capture prey on the surface, especially at dawn and dusk. It will also use all depths of the water to hunt for food, looking for forage fish that are suspended and crayfish under rocks. During winter, smallmouth bass stay close to the bottom and are not active.
Fishing techniques: Casting, trolling, jigging, drop shot, Texas rig fishing or “Carolina rig fishing”, fly.
5.2 / LARGEMOUTH BASS
Scientific Name: Micropterus salmoides, Centrarchidae Family
Common Names: Black Bass, Green Bass, largemouth bass
Canadian record: 10.48 lbs.
Ontario record: 10.43 lbs.
Quebec Record: 6.9 lbs.
Preferred temperatures (min and max): 13 to 29 degrees C/55 to 84 degrees F
Optimal temperature: 22 degrees C/72 degrees F
Habitat: Largemouth bass usually swim within the upper warmer waters of lakes and rivers and shallow bays. They can usually be found at depths of less than six or seven meters (20 feet) even during the summer. This bass will normally stay in areas that have dense vegetation (water lilies, submerged trees, stumps, submerged roots, cattails and other dense vegetation). The largemouth will not hesitate, however, to venture out and follow the schools of bait fish in open water.
Reproduction: The largemouth bass spawn in late spring and early summer when the water temperature varies between 17 and 20 degrees C (63 to 68 F). Males reach sexual maturity before females.
Spawning areas are generally located in shallow bays that range in depth from a few dozen centimeters to more than one meter (1 to 4 ft.). The month of June is generally the most active time for spawning in Ontario and Quebec.
The female lays her eggs in a nest that the male has carefully prepared on a sandy, muddy and gravelly bottom or within vegetation. The size of the nest is variable and generally resembles a large plate at the bottom of the water ranging in size from 60 centimeters to one meter in diameter (2-3 feet). The female lays her eggs in the nest that will be fertilized by the male. Females may mate with more than one male and may make more than one nest. The male will protect the nest with fervor by circulating the water over the eggs until they hatch a few days later (3 to 5 days).
The male will be quick to attack any intruder who approaches the nest, including fishermen’s’ lures. Bass season is in fact closed during the breeding season for this very reason. The fry measuring 3 millimeters will remain near the male during the first week, benefitting from its protection. They also do not hesitate to take refuge in the mouth of the male in case of danger. The fry leave the nest about ten days later, but will remain for a month near the male.
Diet: The diet of bass varies with its size and its growth. The fry feed on plankton and later on small insects and larvae during the growth period. During adulthood, bass feed primarily on crayfish, minnows, small frogs, small rodents, salamanders, worms, leeches, insects, etc…
The bass are able to feed with good eyesight and will not hesitate to pick up prey on the surface or on the bottom. It normally hunts near the edge of the body of water or near vegetation, but may also follow schools of bait fish that are farther offshore. The larger specimens may, however, be more solitary. It is possible to catch a few large specimens in an ideal habitat. The largemouth bass are less active during the winter months and will make fat reserves during the fall.
Fishing Techniques: Casting, trolling, jigging, drop shot, Texas rig fishing, Carolina Rig fishing, fly.
5.3 / BLACK CRAPPIE
Scientific Name: Pomoxis nigromaculatus, Centrarchidae Family
Common Names: Calico, black crappie
Canadian Record: (Not Available)
Ontario Record: 3.78 lbs.
Quebec Record: (Not Available)
Preferred temperatures (min and max): 13 to 27 degrees C/55 to 80 degrees F
Optimal temperature: 21 to 24 degrees C/70 to 75 degrees F
Habitat: The black crappie is found in lakes and rivers with medium to dense vegetation, in Ontario and Quebec. It prefers clear waters but it can also be found elsewhere if the water is not too turbid. This species is gregarious and it is not uncommon to find schools of dozens or hundreds of fish.
Reproduction: The crappie species spawn in late spring and early summer (May to July depending on its geographic location) when the water varies between 17 and 18.5 degrees C (62 to 65 F). Spawning areas are usually shallow and located on sandy, gravelly or muddy bottoms.
The male builds a nest in a colony in which the female will lay her eggs. The hatching will occur 3 to 5 days thereafter. The female may mate with more than one male and make more than one nest. The male will guard the nest and the fry after hatching occurs. Black crappie can live up to ten years.
Diet: They feed mainly on plankton and larvae until they reach 15 cm in length. They consume small fish, larvae, insects, worms and eggs when they have reached adulthood.
Fishing techniques: casting, bobber, drop shot, small jigs, small tubes.
5.4 / ROCK BASS
Scientific Name: Ambloplites rupestris, Centrarchidae
Common Names: Red eye bluegill, rock bass
Canadian Record: 3 lbs.
Ontario Record: 3 lbs.
Quebec Record: (not available)
Preferred temperatures (min and max): 13 to 27 degrees C/55 to 80 degrees F
Optimal temperature: 20 to 23 degrees C/69 to 74 degrees F
Habitat: Rock bass are found mostly in clear water lakes and rivers that have a rocky, gravelly or pebbled bottom and which have medium to dense vegetation, in Ontario and Quebec. Rock bass is also a gregarious species and can often be found in the company of other bass or sunfish.
Reproduction: Rock bass spawn in the spring or in early summer (June and July) when the water temperature is around 20 degrees C (68F). The male builds a nest shaped like a saucer in shallow waters on a sandy or pebbled bottom. The female will lay her eggs and many different fish can lay eggs in the same nest.
The male will guard the nest after the eggs are fertilized. The hatching will occur 3 to 4 days later. The male will also protect the fry after hatching. Rock bass can live up to 10 years.
Diet: The rock bass feed primarily on small fish, crayfish, grubs, insects, worms, eggs, etc…
Fishing techniques: casting, bobber, small jigs, drop shot, small tubes.
5.5 / PUMPKINSEED
Scientific Name: Lepomis gibbosus. Centrarchidae Family
Common Names: Sunfish, pumpkinseed
Canadian Record: 1 lb.
Ontario Record: 1 lb.
Quebec Record: (not available)
Preferred temperatures (min and max): 10 to 27 degrees C/55 to 80 degrees F
Habitat: This sunfish also prefers clear waters that have dense vegetation. You can find them in both Ontario and Quebec. This species is gregarious and is often found in small schools of fish. They prefer, however, cooler water than other sunfish species.
Reproduction: This sunfish breeds in the spring and early summer (June-August). Spawning beds are generally found in shallow water on a sandy, gravelly or muddy bottom near aquatic vegetation.
The male builds a nest in which the female will lay her eggs. Hatching will occur three days later. Males will protect the eggs and then the fry after hatching. Many individual fish may spawn in the same nest repeatedly.
Diet: The sunfish feed primarily on small fish, small crustaceans, larvae, insects, eggs, etc.
Fishing techniques: casting, bobber, small jigs, drop shot, small tubes.
5.6 / BLUEGILL
Scientific Name: Lepomis macrochirus, Centrarchiae Family
Common Names: Bluegill
Canadian Record: (not available)
Ontario Record: 1.83 lbs.
Quebec Record: (not available)
Preferred temperatures: (min and max) 13 to 27 degrees C/55 to 80 degrees F
Habitat: Common bluegill generally prefers clear waters and dense vegetation, but at times can be found in slightly brackish waters. Bluegill is the most abundant of all panfish in Canada and is present in Ontario and Quebec lakes and rivers.
This species is also gregarious and is often found in small schools of individuals. It will gather in colonies in shallow waters during the winter.
Reproduction: The bluegill breed in the springtime and early summer (June-August). Spawning grounds are generally located in shallow water with a gravelly, sandy or muddy bottom.
The male will build a nest in which the female will lay eggs. The same nest may be used for the coupling of several males and females. The hatching occurs within 3 to 5 days. Males will protect the eggs and fry.
Diet: The bluegill feed primarily on small fish, small crustaceans, larvae, insects, eggs…when they reach adult age.
Fishing Techniques: Casting, small Jigs, bobber, drop shot, small tubes.
1 Salmonidae: For further information about this species and the specific regulations that affect them in Ontario and Quebec, consult the following sites: Ministry of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ministry of Natural Resources of Ontario, Le Ministère des forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs.
2 Trout and Char: For further information about this species and the specific regulations that affect them in Ontario and Quebec, consult the following sites: Ministry of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ministry of Natural Resources of Ontario, Le Ministère des forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs.
3 Percidae: For further information about this species and the specific regulations that affect them in Ontario and Quebec, consult the following sites: Ministry of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ministry of Natural Resources of Ontario, Le Ministère des forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs.
4 Esocidae: For further information about this species and the specific regulations that affect them in Ontario and Quebec, consult the following sites: Ministry of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ministry of Natural Resources of Ontario, Le Ministère des forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs.
5 Centrarchidae: For further information about this species and the specific regulations that affect them in Ontario and Quebec, consult the following sites: Ministry of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ministry of Natural Resources of Ontario, Le Ministère des forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs.